AstraZeneca covid vaccine is associated with a slightly increased risk of hemorrhagic disease

The new crown is in the global pandemic, and vaccines are expected to restart the world. However, reports of thrombocytopenia and adverse events related to the Oxford AstraZeneca new crown vaccine, cdadox1, have led to restrictions on their use in some countries, while reducing the enthusiasm of some public vaccinations to some extent.
At 23:00 p.m. on June 9, Beijing time, a study by the British team was published online by the international top academic journal Nature Medicine entitled “first dose cadadox1 and bnt162b2 covid-19 vaccines and thrombocytopenic, thromboembolis and hmorrhagic events in Scotland”. The study conducted a national survey of more than 2.5 million Scottish adults who had received the first dose of Oxford AstraZeneca new crown vaccine, chudox1 or Pfizer biontech new crown vaccine bnt162b2. The survey showed that oxfordiicon vaccine was associated with a slight increase in the risk of an autoimmune haemorrhagic disease, i.e. Immunet thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The study also found that there may be evidence that Oxfam AstraZeneca vaccine is associated with increased risk of other bleeding and vascular problems.
The UK team stressed that public health authorities should inform their jurisdictions of these relatively small risk increases associated with the chdox1“ If the new crown vaccine is adequately supplied, it may be necessary to provide the public with alternative vaccines. ”
Nature medicine also published with the journal opinion articles written by Douglas B. cines, et al. Of the University of Pennsylvania. Cines et al. Stressed that it is important not only to consider the strengths and limitations of the study itself in interpreting the findings of this newly published study, “but also to consider a broader clinical background and the balance between the risks and benefits of vaccination.”
1.13 cases were given the first dose of every 100000 cases
The three vaccines currently used in the UK are Oxford AstraZeneca new crown vaccine, cdadox1, Pfizer biotech new crown vaccine bnt162b2 and Moderna company mrna-1273, which have been shown to reduce covid-19 infection. Given that the first mrna-1273 was only conducted in Scotland on April 7, 2021, the study focused on chdox1 and bnt162b2.
Previous clinical trials have shown that the two vaccines against COVID-19, ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2, are generally well tolerated, but a few serious side effects are reported. After 22million first and 6.8 million second injections, the British drug and health care products Administration (MHRA) received 209 cases of thrombocytopenic purpura and thromboembolism (haemorrhagic and thromboembolism, respectively).
The European drug administration also listed thrombocytopenia with thrombocytopenia as a rare side effect of the AstraZeneca vaccine in April, but still found that the benefits of vaccination were greater than the risk, and EU Member States decided whether to continue using it.
To investigate the possibility of a new crown vaccine and the progression of blood diseases, Aziz Sheikh and colleagues from the University of Edinburgh, UK, investigated vaccine related bleeding and vascular events in Scotland (57 per cent of adults over 18) who received the first new crown vaccine (most commonly, chdox1 or bnt162b2) between december2020 and April 2021.
The team found that in the survey population, the cdadox1 vaccine was associated with a slight increase in ITP risk for up to 27 days after injection, which led to mild cyanosis and excessive bleeding in some patients, and chronic disease in some patients. It is estimated that 1.13 of every 100000 first dose injections occur.
The analysis also showed that the risk of other arterial thrombosis and bleeding events increased slightly within 27 days of the treatment with chdox1. But there is no sufficient evidence that chadox1 is associated with a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, a rare disease that forms thrombosis in the brain.
At the same time, the team did not find evidence that bnt162b2 vaccine was associated with the increased risk of these adverse events.
The research team points out in the paper that several limitations of the study should be paid attention to. Since few people were vaccinated with two doses at the time of analysis, no separate investigation was conducted on this subgroup (second dose), and further analysis of the second dose would be carried out at the appropriate time.
In addition, the study had fewer young vaccinations (< 40 years old), especially the cdadox1 vaccine, because the vaccination program has so far given priority to older and potentially basic disease groups. They noted that further research needs to be included in younger populations and to assess responses to a second dose of vaccine.
Limitations also include the need to assume that clinicians have conducted appropriate investigations of thrombocytopenia before recording ITP diagnosis.
The team concluded that in patients vaccinated with bnt162b2, they did not find an increase in the overall risk of any adverse events. The first dose of chdox1 was associated with a slight increase in ITP risk, suggesting an increased risk of arterial thromboembolism and bleeding events.
Given the slight increase in these risks in chdox1, the study believes that it may be necessary to provide the public with alternative vaccines if the new crown vaccine is adequately supplied.
The “balance between risk and benefit” team also stressed that the benefits of chadox1 are very clear and should be understood in this context. The novel coronavirus pneumonia risk is far less than that of the new crown pneumonia, especially for the elderly and other vulnerable groups.
The team said it is important to note that these small risks are important but rare, and are comparable to those of other vaccines, including hepatitis B, cysticercosis, mumps, rubella and influenza.
Cines and others wrote in the opinion article that the world has brought the fastest and the most extensive vaccination program in human history to control COVID-19’s efforts. Despite its many advantages, it has potential side effects, including autoimmune responses.
Cines et al. Stressed that it is important not only to consider the strengths and limitations of the study itself when interpreting the findings of the latest study published in nature medicine, “but also to consider a broader clinical background and the balance between the risks and benefits of vaccination.”
This article holds that, in general, the view that vaccination may induce immune thrombocytopenic purpura is not new and there is no precedent in the history of vaccine. For example, thrombocytopenia is common in children vaccinated against measles. The risk of ITP is generally mild and will subside in a few weeks or months. It is estimated that one case is found in every 40000 doses of measles mumps rubella vaccine, which is only slightly higher than that after natural infection.
Cines et al. Believes that the attribution of a rare adverse event to the vaccine will aggravate the phenomenon of “vaccine hesitation” and have an important impact on public health“ Overall, the author concludes that there is no clear evidence that ITP is associated with the first dose of bnt162b2 vaccine, and that the chadox1 vaccine may increase the risk of ITP. ”
They believe that the incidence rate, severity, duration and responsiveness of ITP after vaccination are not yet fully defined and need further analysis. Nevertheless, the risk of vaccine induced ITP seems to be far lower than many of the risks associated with covid-19. ”
Cines et al. Noted that some major international efforts are still ongoing to continue to assess and improve vaccine safety.

Double mutant novel coronavirus found in India, WHO: worrying

A novel coronavirus with both E484Q and L452R mutations has been discovered in India and has been submitted to the WHO Working Group on Virus Evolution, according to Maria van Kohoff, technical director of the WHO Health Emergency Programme, at the WHO’s daily briefing on COVID-19 on Tuesday.
The “double mutation” was discovered at the end of 2020 and the rate of infections is increasing.
The presence of “double mutations” in the virus has raised concerns that it could lead to increased infectivity, with some mutations also reducing neutralization responses or affecting the effectiveness of pandemic responses such as vaccines.

Novel coronavirus continues to spread nearly 400 confirmed infections in Japan

A total of 128 people in 11 prefectures and prefectures were found to be infected with the novel coronavirus variant in the 7 days ended March 16, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare said Thursday.
This figure represents an increase of 51 over the previous seven days, or a 66% increase in percentage.
So far, 399 people have been confirmed infected with the mutated virus in Japan.
Hyogo prefecture reported the largest number of new cases in Japan, with 56, followed by Saitama 16, Hokkaido 13, Osaka 10, Tokushima 9, Kanagawa and Ehime 6 each, Kituto and Hiroshima 5 each, and Kagawa and Okinawa 1 each.
So far, a total of 399 people have been confirmed infected in Japan, including 374 with the British strain, 17 in Brazil and eight in South Africa.
Different kinds of mutated viruses have different characteristics, some may be more contagious and likely to cause severe disease, while others may be more resistant to the immune system and vaccines.
In addition, after virus testing, cases of the mutant novel coronavirus reported in the Philippines and other places have also been found in Japan.
The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare will take steps to improve the testing system, including that of local governments.

Brazilian strain of virus that could spread around the world is an ‘atomic bomb’, scientists warn

Everyone knows that the United States is the worst affected country by COVID-19, but how many people know what the second worst country is?
Not India, the second most populous country, or Indonesia, the third most populous country, but Brazil, the giant of South America!

In the place where COVID-19 broke out, Brazilian President Bolsonaro followed Trump’s policy of not blocking, not controlling, and allowing the flow of domestic personnel, which eventually led to the complete control of COVID-19 in Brazil.

Ironically, while the United States has the scientific capacity to develop COVID-19, what does Brazil have?
At the end of the day, you have to go around and buy vaccines from other countries, and it’s not always possible to get them.

The latest piece of bad news comes at a time when the epidemic in Brazil is spiraling out of control.

According to the who report, Brazil has become the p. 1 strains in the most severe breeding grounds, the mutant viruses have stronger infectivity, and fatality rate is higher, more terrorist, p. 1 mutant virus has started to spread to neighboring countries in Brazil, in countries such as the United States and Mexico have discovered the corresponding strain.

Scientists Warn of ‘Atomic Bomb’

The danger of P.1 is not only the high rate of transmission, but also the high rate of secondary infection of the virus, which makes it unsafe for some people to receive the vaccine.

Roberto, a Brazilian biologist in charge of Novel Coronavirus, said directly that the media did not know the horror of the mutated virus at all. It was like an “atomic bomb” thrown into the population, which accelerated the spread of the epidemic.

But Brazilian medical experts are lamented that President Jairo Bolsonaro has done nothing about it, and baffled that he has urged stay-at-home residents to get out and do more business.

The only way to contain the epidemic in Brazil is for the Brazilian population to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, but Brazil does not have the capacity to make one and has been repeatedly blocked from buying one from other countries.

America’s Pfizer vaccine exports are too small to meet Brazil’s needs, while Britain’s AstraZeneca vaccines are too small for the European Union, let alone Brazil.
In response, Brazil turned to India for the vaccine, but months later, the Brazilian government’s order for 30 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine from India has been delayed.

Without a source of vaccine, the epidemic in Brazil will continue unchecked. More than 117 million people worldwide have already been infected, and at current trends and the rate of transmission, this number will continue to grow rapidly.

Experts predict: the next mutated virus is likely to appear in France

On March 5, the French newspaper fagaro published a special interview by mark schelkey to Philip frogail, Professor of the second University of Lille and Imperial College of technology in France, entitled “the next variant virus is likely to appear in France”. The article introduces the current spread of new crown virus in France. The excerpts of the full text are as follows:
What is the case with the variant virus in France, the fagaro asked?
Philip frogaelier: mutated viruses, especially the “B117” variant in the UK, are now occupying the majority of new infections. The current UK variant, which is currently at a pace of 50 per cent per week, will soon become the only new crown virus in France, which will be in line with what happened in the UK and Israel. However, the exact proportion of mutated viruses is uncertain. The current PCR (PCR) detection overestimates the UK variant virus by 30 to 40%, and it is difficult to identify the proportion of the variant viruses in South Africa and Brazil.
Last week, I found in our lab that the proportion of UK variant viruses by gene sequencing was 34 percent. The private laboratory that provided us with samples through PCR test thought that the proportion of the UK variant virus was more than 50%.
Q: what are your suggestions?
A: 5% of the confirmed cases need to be sequenced in the whole method. This approach helps to detect new mutated viruses. The next variant is likely to appear in France. While the spread of the virus in the UK, the United States and Israel has decreased significantly, France is, like Brazil, increasing its spread.
Q: can PCR and gene sequencing be performed simultaneously?
A: not good. It’s not a good way. PCR detection is also significant when the mutant virus is just arrived. When mutated viruses are so large, it’s a waste of money to do it again.
Q: what do you think of the French policy of testing saliva?
A: we are supportive. But I think it’s going to take a step further to allow some automated testing to be carried out so that people can quickly isolate themselves when they find that they are positive.

The mutant novel coronavirus is spreading in Japan and may affect the Tokyo Olympics

A highly infectious mutant novel coronavirus has been detected in more and more areas of Japan, the news said Thursday night.
According to Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the mutant Coronavirus is spreading in 19 prefectures.

Japanese experts say the mutated virus is likely to “spread more rapidly than at present” in the future.
Japan is bracing for a fourth wave of COVID-19, which could have a damaging impact on the lifting of the emergency declaration and the Tokyo Olympics.
The Japanese government is currently monitoring three variants of the virus found in Britain, South Africa and Brazil.
As of March 4, 234 confirmed cases of the mutated virus have been reported in Japan since the first case was reported in December last year (2020).

Why is coronavirus more likely to infect people with type A blood?

The novel coronavirus pandemic has recorded infections of more than 110 million people worldwide and caused more than 2.5 million deaths.

However, the true rate of infection worldwide is believed to be much higher than the numbers recorded so far, with estimates of more than 10 per cent of the total global population, meaning that about 800 million people are infected.

Because novel coronavirus is a completely new virus to humans, theoretically the entire population is susceptible to it.

However, observations have found that different populations are not equally susceptible to the virus.

Older people and those with underlying diseases, for example, seem to be more susceptible to infection and tend to be sicker after infection.

For example, people’s susceptibility to the virus varies from place to place.

In addition, shortly after the outbreak, scientists observed that people with different blood types (ABO blood type) had different susceptibility to novel coronavirus.

The virus seems to be more likely to infect people with type A blood.

Novel coronavirus is known to use its capsule spikes (S protein) to bind to the ACE2 receptor on the human cell membrane to open the door to enter the cell and form an infection.

However, spikes require a cleavage of the cell membrane called transmembrane serine proteinase 2 (TMPRSS2) to mediate viral infection of cells.

In other words, novel coronavirus infection depends on the presence of both ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2 enzyme on the cell membrane.

However, it does not seem to be directly related to blood type.

Why on earth is novel coronavirus more likely to infect people with type A blood?

A newly published study has shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved.

Although Novel coronavirus-infected cells rely on the ACE2 receptor and the TMPRSS2 enzyme, this does not mean that they are unaffected by other factors.

Viral spikes may also interact with other molecules on the cell membrane of the host, thereby influencing susceptibility to disease.

In order to explore the possible influence of ABO blood type on the susceptibility of novel coronavirus, researchers at Boston Women’s Hospital conducted a more detailed study on the structure of the cell binding part of the novel coronavirus protein, known as the spiroprotein binding domain (RBD).

The results showed that novel coronavirus spiroprotein RBD has similar general structural characteristics to a glycoprotein known as galactagglutinin, which is inherent in human body.

Galactosagglutinins are known to be an ancient family of glycan binding proteins that are present in most animals (all metazoans).

Previous studies have known that galactosagglutinin has a high affinity for blood group antigens.

So the scientists set out to test whether Novel Coronavirus RBD might also have similar recognition and different binding abilities to blood type antigens.

To test this, the researchers cloned and purified the novel coronavirusRBD and incubated it in vitro with A, B or O blood type red blood cells and respiratory to epithelial cells.

The results showed that novel coronavirusRBD had strong binding ability with type A blood respiratory epithelial cells.

RBCs with type A blood, as well as respiratory epithelial cells and RBCs of other blood groups, did not show particularly strong binding.

We know that novel coronavirus is infected through the respiratory tract.

Novel coronavirusRBD showed A stronger ability to bind to respiratory epithelial cells of type A blood, enough to solve the “unsolved mystery” that people with type A blood are more susceptible to this virus.

However, why does novel coronavirus show stronger binding ability only to respiratory epithelial cells of type A blood, but not to erythrocytes with ACE2 receptors, compared with other blood groups?

It turns out that ABO (H) blood group antigens are present not only on red blood cells, but also on other tissue cells throughout the body, including the respiratory epithelium.

However, the blood group antigens on red blood cells are not exactly the same as those in other tissues.

Those on red blood cells are known as ABO (H) type II antigens, while those on respiratory epithelial and other tissue cells are known as ABO (H) type I antigens.

There are subtle but fundamental differences between the two structures.

This is why there is a difference in the combination with novel coronavirus.

In conclusion, the new study provides direct evidence to explain why novel coronavirus is more likely to infect people with type A blood, revealing the biological mechanism behind it.

World first! Premature infants infected with novel coronavirus: postpartum and mutation

Although experts have not yet identified mother-to-child transmission of novel coronavirus, it has already happened in real life.

According to foreign media reports, a premature baby in Sweden was infected with novel coronavirus at birth, and a few days after birth, the novel coronavirus has been mutated, which once again triggered the mother-infant transmission of suspicion.

A pregnant woman was taken to hospital with abdominal pain, only to have an emergency caesarean section performed after doctors found the unborn baby’s heart rate was very low, possibly due to lack of oxygen.

Blood tests after the baby’s successful delivery confirmed the presence of severe hypoxia.
In addition, after throat swabs, both mother and baby were found to have novel coronavirus.

Experts then sequenced the genomes of throat swabs from the mother and the newborn, and found that the mother’s and the baby’s viral genomes were identical, suggesting that the baby was infected with novel coronavirus before birth.

So doctors put them in isolation.
But on the fifth day of life, a second genetic sequencing of the novel coronavirus found a mutant strain in addition to the original virus, the first of its kind in the world.

Experts say that while the mutated virus is common, it could have been caused by exposure to the environment after birth.
But what was surprising was that the mutation happened so quickly.

In addition, some unusual conditions have been found in the placenta.
Novel coronavirus proteins were also found in parts of the placenta with severe inflammation, and some placental tissue was damaged.

Fortunately, the mother recovered and was discharged within four days.
Since the baby was born prematurely, he continued to be cared for in the hospital, and he did not develop any other serious symptoms after birth.

What was even more surprising was that the babies had developed antibodies to the virus.
Doctors said it was caused by the baby’s own immune system neutralising the virus, as no antibodies to the virus were found in the mother’s breast milk.

Nineyear NBA veteran called “novel coronavirus”?

Jeremy Lin, an Asian-American basketball player, posted on social media Tuesday that he was called a “novel coronavirus” by another player during a recent game.

Now, the NBA Development League has announced an investigation into the alleged racial discrimination.

Jeremy Lin’s ‘sudden’ voice

Lin’s outburst comes amid a recent rise in the number of discrimination and hate crimes against Asians in the US.

In late January this year, local media in the United States released a surveillance video.

 

In the video, 84-year-old Vichar Ratanapakdee, who is of Asian ethnicity, was walking in a San Francisco neighborhood in the morning when he was suddenly attacked by a young man, leading to his death.

On Jan. 31, a 91-year-old Asian man was pushed to the ground in Oakland, Calif.
The suspect in the attack was later arrested and faces multiple charges in connection with the Chinatown attack.

Kevin Jiang, 26, a Chinese-American graduate student at Yale University, was shot dead in New Haven, Connecticut, on February 6.

On Feb. 16, a 52-year-old Chinese woman was attacked by a white man in a pastry shop in Queens, New York, leaving her in the hospital with a lacerated forehead and receiving five stitches.

An Asian man was stabbed in Manhattan on the night of Feb. 25. The victim was hospitalized in critical condition after suffering a severe back injury.

△ New York Post: Suspect in stabbing Asian man tells police ‘I didn’t like the way he looked at me’

The US Justice Department said on Tuesday it would investigate the attacks on Asian-Americans.

Racial discrimination, anyone with me?

In fact, the problem of racial discrimination has existed in the United States for many years.

According to Stop Hating Asian and Pacific Islanders, a civic group that represents Asian-Americans, there were 2,808 crimes committed against Asian-Americans between March 19 and December 31, 2020.

It’s not the first time Lin has spoken out against racial discrimination.

In March of last year, when House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy called a novel coronavirus a “Chinese virus,” Lin responded, “It’s a blatant racist comment. It’s very disappointing.
Your defence of the use of the word is ignorant.
The heroes of the world are fighting the virus. Don’t preach racism at this time!

Jeremy Lin responds to American politicians

In fact, Lin himself had to deal with racism when he was growing up.

 

Earlier, Lin said in an interview that he did not receive the same respect in the NBA.
“Because they see me as Asian and they don’t really think I can play well.”

In 2017, Lin fell to the ground while driving a layup. He was lying on the ground looking in pain, perhaps knowing how badly he was hurt. Lin shouted several times, “I am done,” before breaking down into tears.

But NBA commentator John Smith publicly commented: Is it true that the yellow race is so fragile? I said the NBA is not for them.

This time, Lin took to social media to speak out on the issue of racial discrimination, and received a lot of support.

Quoting Lin himself

“As an Asian-American

Doesn’t mean

We will not experience poverty or racism

We express our feelings more than once

Is anyone listening?”

More than 20000 cases have been confirmed in Italy, and reports say the mutated virus is spreading rapidly

Italy’s Ministry of civil defense reported a total of 19886 new confirmed cases and 308 deaths on the 25th, with 2868435 confirmed cases, 96974 deaths and 2375318 cured cases nationwide.
According to reports, gimbe, an Italian non-profit medical research institution, released the weekly epidemic report on the 25th, pointing out that the number of newly infected cases rose again last week after four weeks of stable growth, with an increase of nearly 10% nationwide and more than 20% in 41 provinces. This indicates that the new coronavirus with transmissibility is spreading rapidly in Italy.
Data picture: people in Palermo, Italy are vaccinated against the new crown in an orderly way in hospitals. Source: icphoto
The National Institutes of health of Italy reported on the 25th that researchers have detected the mutated new coronavirus found in the UK and Brazil in the wastewater of Perugia in Umbria and Guardia Grele in Abruzzo.
In the wastewater samples from Perugia, Umbria region, central Italy, from February 5 to 8, there were new coronavirus variants found in Britain and Brazil; in the wastewater samples from Guardia guerrele, Abruzzo region, southern Italy, from January 21 to 26, there were new coronavirus variants found in Spain.
Professor Pierluigi lopalco, the pulia health commissioner and epidemiologist, said it was necessary to close schools in order to avoid the spread of the third wave of the new coronavirus. At present, the school is the most vulnerable link of the whole pandemic. With the spread of mutated virus and the increase of minors infected, schools should use distance learning as much as possible to curb the spread of the epidemic.

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